Logo PTI
Polish Information Processing Society
Logo FedCSIS

Annals of Computer Science and Information Systems, Volume 13

Communication Papers of the 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems

A Method for Converting Colors for Color-impaired People, Considering Saturation and Contrast Ratio

, , , ,

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15439/2017F151

Citation: Communication Papers of the 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, M. Ganzha, L. Maciaszek, M. Paprzycki (eds). ACSIS, Vol. 13, pages 357366 ()

Full text

Abstract. Because color-impaired people have difficulty in perceiving specific colors, colors used in documents must be converted for them. The colors of documents include the intentions of their designers. That is, designers use different colors for parts of the document that they want to be attractive or distinguishable in some way. In existing conversion methods, however, colors are not converted based on a consideration of the designers' intentions. Hence, we propose a method for converting document colors for color-impaired people in a manner that takes the designers' intentions into account. Here, we define the designers' intentions as ``attractiveness'' and ``distinguishability.'' In our method, the original colors are classified into three levels, low, middle, and high, based on their saturation. In each saturation level, some colors are defined as available for conversion. Next, the original colors are converted to colors in the corresponding saturation levels. According to the RGB (red-green-blue) values of the original colors, the target colors for conversion can be specified. Then, the contrast ratios of the pair of foreground and background colors are calculated. If the contrast ratios do not satisfy the specific thresholds, the colors are additionally converted to other colors in the corresponding saturation levels. Finally, when the contrast ratios satisfy the specific thresholds, the conversion is complete.


  1. Facts About Color Blindness. [Online]. Available: https://nei.nih.gov/health/color_blindness/facts_about (Referred in May 6, 2017).
  2. Color Universal Design Colorset Guidebook. [Online]. Available: http://www2.cudo.jp/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/CUD_Colorset_Guidebook.pdf (in Japanese) (Referred in May 6, 2017).
  3. L. Zhou, V. Bensal, and D. Zhang, “Color adaptation for improving mobile web accessibility”, Procs. of 2014 IEEE/ACIS 13th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS), Taiyuan, China, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIS.2014.6912149
  4. D. R. Flatla, K. Reinecke, C. Gutwin, and K. Z. Gajos, “SPRWeb: preserving subjective responses to website colour schemes through automatic recolouring”, Procs. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Paris, France, pp. 2069-2078, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2470654.2481283
  5. L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part I: Colour emotions for single colours”, Color Research & Application, Volume 29, pp. 232-240, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/col.20010
  6. H. Takimoto, H. Yamauchi, M. Jindai, and A. Kanagawa, “Modification of indistinguishable colors for people with color vision deficiency”, Journal of Signal Processing Volume 16, Number 6, pp. 587-592, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2299/jsp.16.587
  7. A. Kruger, “Median-cut color quantization”, Dr. Dobb’s Jounal, 1994.
  8. A. A. Gooch, S. C. Olsen, J. Tumblin, and B. Gooch, “Color2Gray: salience-preserving color removal”, Proc. SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, pp. 634-639, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1073204.1073241
  9. N. H. N. A. Wahab, F. S. Ismail, and M. A. A. Nawawi, “Color Transformation Method for Protanopia Vision Deficiency using Artificial Neural Network”, Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Volume 8, Number 11, pp. 29-33, 2016.
  10. H. Orii, H. Kawano, N. Suetake, and H. Maeda, “Color conversion for color blindness employing multilayer neural network with perceptual model”, Proc. of the 7th Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology (PSIVT 2015), Volume 9431, pp. 3-14, Auckland, New Zealand, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29451-3_1
  11. CIE, “Commission internationale de l’Eclairage proceedings”, Cambridge University Press, 1931.
  12. T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use”, Transactions of the Optical Society, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 73-134, 1932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-4878/33/3/301
  13. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm”, Vision Research, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp. 161-171, 1975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(75)90203-5
  14. F. Vienot, H. Brettel, and J. D. Mollon, “Digital video colourmaps for checking the legibility of displays by dichromats”, Color Research and Application Volume 24, Issue 4, pp. 243-252, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6378(199908)24:4<243::AID-COL5>3.0.CO;2-3
  15. N. Suetake and G. Tanaka, “Color transformation techniques for gamuts of lower dimension - color transformation for monochrome display/print and dichromacy -”. IEICE ESS Fundamentals Review Volume 6, Number 2, pp. 102-113, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1587/essfr.6.102
  16. R. Harwahyu, A. S. Manaf, B. S. Ananto, B. A. Wicaksana, and R. F. Sari, “Implementation of color-blind aid system”, Journal of Computer Science, Volume 9, Number 6, pp. 794-810, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/jcssp.2013.794.810
  17. S. Tajima and K. Komine, “Saliency-based color accessibility”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Volume 24, Number 3, pp. 1115-1126, 2015., http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2015.2393056
  18. M. Geissbuehler and T. Lasser, “How to display data by color schemes compatible with red-green color perception deficiencies”, Opt. Express 21, pp. 9862-9874, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.009862
  19. M. Tennekes and E. Jonge, “Tree colors: color schemes for tree-structured data”, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Volume 20, Number 12, pp. 2072-2081, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2014.2346277
  20. K. Tsuchida, C. Kato, and T. Nagshima, “Color barrier free displays in disaster situations”, Open Journal of Social Sciences Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 25-29, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.42005
  21. A. Frane, “A call for considering color vision deficiency when creating graphics for psychology reports”, The Journal of General Psychology, Volume 142, Number 3, pp. 194-211, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.2015.1063475
  22. A. R. Smith, “Color gamut transformation pairs”, Computers Graphics vol.12, pp.12-19, 1978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/965139.807361.
  23. Japan Color Research Institute, “Practical color co-ordinate system”, Japan Color Research Institute, 1964.
  24. Japan Color Research Institute, “PCCS harmonic color chart 201-L”, Japan Color Research Institute, 1999.
  25. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. [Online]. Available: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ (Referred in May 6, 2017).
  26. ImageJ. [Online]. Available, https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ (Referred in May 6, 2017)
  27. VischeckJ. [Online]. Available, http://www.vischeck.com/ (Referred in May 6, 2017)